i want a reply post to the below essay in 200 words using apa format and journal articles 35

The phase model of negotiation consists of three typical steps for ensuring the flow in the negotiation system. This model is effective in increasing the understanding regarding negotiation. The stages involved in this model are explained in detail below.


In this phase, the parties involved in negotiation define the goals that are incompatible. Exploration of the preliminaries specifies the priorities. Diagnosis system is performed on the differences between the parties where the range is established. The issues are thereby identified, and the agenda is defined for formulating the problem in detail. Such initiation system can demand assertiveness and planned behavior (Volkema and Flexk, 2012). For example, organizations can experience reluctance from the workers when introduced with new innovation. This can bring about changes in the working atmosphere and other operations because of which the workers are not interested in their activity. Along these lines, the level of absenteeism is high, and the management is worried about the decrease in productivity. Therefore, management has decided taking an initiative to defeat the resistance to change. Therefore, the representatives have been called for a meeting and have been communicated to all the department heads and staffs.

Problem solving

This stage involves structuring the expectation within the parties involved in the negotiation, and a range is explored. The negotiation is positioned, and the bargaining system is carried out by exploring the perceptions of the two parties. The problem is then clarified, and a positive relationship is established in this stage by narrowing the differences. Finally, the problem is settled (Wilson and Thompson, 2014). In this stage of negotiation, the management strives to think about the perceptions of the workers regarding the new innovation implementation to explore the reasons behind their resistance. The benefits of the innovation are also communicated to the staffs. The advantages and disadvantages of the options and the alternative measures have to be addressed, and the implications are discussed. Management and the staffs will exchange their perceptions. A decision that is mutually beneficial has to be undertaken where in this case, the management has decided to offer training to the workers on the new innovation usage.


This is the final stage where a conclusion has arrived on the system of negotiation based upon a legitimate decision-making. A settlement on the negotiation goals has arrived where it is favorable for both the parties involved. The final bargaining system is performed, and all the execution related activities are carried out. What the resolution arrived is then organized, and agreement is delivered (Lewicki, Saunders and Barry, 2014). In this stage of negotiation, the management strives to determine the issue to finish up concerning the training frameworks, structures, and others. The calendar, timings, and strategies in which the training has to be carried out are planned to depend on the learning of the workers. The management has promised manager stability to the staffs which have beaten their resistance. With the agreement, this option is finalized to diminish the absenteeism and increase the productivity.

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